The gender wage gap is a measure of what women are paid relative to men. It is calculated by dividing women’s wages by men’s wages, and this ratio is often expressed as a percent, or in dollar terms.

Watch Top 10 countries closing gender pay gap (paying women the same as men in similar jobs) based on 2023 Global Gender Gap Report:

The pay gap doesn’t just affect women’s wallets. Women who earn a lower income than men in the same role are more likely to suffer from mood disorders including depression and anxiety. Larger gaps in pay and gender inequities are also linked to worse mortality outcomes, poorer self-rated health, and increased disability.

Watch 6 other facts on gender wage gap:

Reasons for gender pay gap:

  • Discrimination (conscious and unconscious) and bias in hiring and pay decisions;
  • Women and men working in different industries and different jobs, with female-dominated industries and jobs attracting lower wages;
  • Lack of workplace flexibility to accommodate caring and other responsibilities, especially in senior roles;
  • High rates of part-time work for women;
  • Women’s greater time out of the workforce for caring responsibilities impacting career progression and opportunities;
  • Women’s disproportionate share of unpaid caring and domestic work;

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